DIRECTOR   Elvina Trowbridge


The author describes the following methods used in Kussia for artificial insfminatk n, and gives photographs of instruments and breeding rack used in this connection. In Russia the need of aitificia 1 insemination arose chiefly on account of the great distances in luml districts which frequently made it impossible to use valuable breeding animals to best advantage, and the author tbinks it probable that artificial insemination will, in future, play an important part in the breeding programme of stockowners. I. The Sponge Method of Ivanov was extensively used in the post, but on account of certain fundamental defects it has been discontinued. II. The Sperm-Collector Method.—Russian experience has shown that this method of getting the sperm with Sperm collector is the most successful one and it has been adopted in Russia for all occasions where large number of ewes are to be inseminated. About 10 times as much sperm con be obtained with the sperm collector and the motility and length of life is also much greater as with the sponge method. In 1931 several hundred thousand sheep, about 187,000 cows, and also horses end donkeys were successfully inseminated by the method. The sperm collector, after being passed into alcohol (65 per cent.) for ten minutes, is, for a short while, put into alkaline physiological salt solution. It is then introduced into the vagina with the help of a pair of pincers. After the ewe has been served, the sperm collector is removed nnd sperm stored in a glass container. With the aid of a syringe and vaginal speculum, a quantity from 0'2 to 0'4 c.c. of sperm is introduced into the uterus of an ewe. All the manipulations of obtaining the sperm and inseminating the ewes are to be earned out in a room with a temperature between 15-20 U. ( 182 ) IH. The Speculum Method.—In this method sperm is collected with the speculum into a watch glass mid need as above. The method is useful if only a few ewes are to be inseminated. IV. The Artificial Vagina Metkod.—This method gives the further advantage of dilution of sperm. Good results have been obtained with the dilution fluid containing mucin in case of sheep, while for cattle the dilution in peptone-lipoid solution proved successful. It is found that the sperm of a single ram and bull was sufficient to inseminate 300 to 400 ewes and 1,250 cows respectively during one season. The author points out that at present this method is chiefly employed for experimental purposes.